October 15, 2007

Traditional Foods Week - Part 1

Traditional Recipes Series
Part 1

Today’s Key Mi’kmaq Words To Know

Lentukewey = deer meat
Tia’muey = moose meat
Plamu = Salmon
Luskinikn= Bannock
Kiwaskanqatestasikewey = for cents cake

Nalikutkniejk = Antigonish
Googoo = Clan Name = Ku’ku’kwes: night owl
Ma’wiomi = Pow Wow
Mijipjewey = Food

It is Mi’kmaq Heritage Month, I plan to work on five traditional cooking themes which will include recipes consisting of Moose (Tiam), Deer (Lentuk), Salmon(Plamu), eels ( Kato) and bannock (Luskinikn). I am lacking eel recipes though, so if someone out there can help contribute their favorite eel chowder, soup, stew, smoked or broiled eel recipes, etc, it would be appreciated. Any recipe contributions would be for that matter, traditional or contemporary. My cousin Daisy Googoo graduated from Culinary School a couple years ago. Daisy will be cooking up for the Ma’wiomi in Antigonish on October 25, 2007 and she is seeking traditional menus. I said, I would help out but I asked her to share some of her favorite dessert recipes in return. I remembered Daisy said her favorite part of Culinary School was baking pastries and desserts. If this is what she most enjoys, then those are the recipes I would like to her to contribute to the online Mawiomi. I do not have much experience with desserts as she does, my menus mostly consists of main dishes and some soups that I have learned from cooking for friends and family. However, I am interested in discovering new foods and menus all the time. I know that there is more to life than Mr. Noodles, KD ( Kraft Dinner) and the infamous Cape Breton Steak aka Maple Leaf Bologna: menus that are both tastier and more nutritional yet still affordable.

A Mi’kmaq Ma’wiomi is a traditional celebration where people get together, feasts and much more, is often known as a Pow Wow. Our Mi'kmaq Ma’wiomi's (Feast or gatherings) have traditionally consisted of prayers or healing ceremonies, talking circles, storytelling, music, singing and dancing, sharing knowledge, arts, crafts and of course feasts that consists of several great foods (Mijipjewey) and drinks. It is in this same spirit we are hoping to achieve on line, where we share our experiences, knowledge and so on. In this on-line Ma’wiomi, our goal is to bring attention, learn, teach and discover much of the talent, knowledge, facts and history, role models, etc that stems from the Mi’kmaq nation, all of which reflects only the positive side of each contribution and story. Each story and contribution will consists of recipes, food facts or food history that we can fit into a “Cookbook Theme”. It is my hope to someday publish some of these stories and recipes into a “Mi’kmaq Heritage Cookbook” where any funds generated would be used to promote our culture and heritage through projects that are not yet publicly funded such as workshops where we learn to tan moose hides or hire a traditional canoe builder to teach these lessons to those who wish to learn. Maybe we can learn to build a teepee from start to finish or something of this nature and interests. This can happen if we work in unity towards these common interests. We certainly hope you enjoy reading, learning, sharing and regaining our heritage and culture on this journey.

Information on the Ma’wiomi in Antigonish is as follows:

In celebration of MikMaq Heritage Month there is a Mawio'mi to be held October 25, 2007. The day will include:

-- Pow wow from 3:00 -5 :30pm

--Dinner and Entertainment from 5:30 - 7:00pm

--Comedy Show 7:00 - 9:00 with special guest - Glen Gould!!!
..who will be performing two SWEET ACTS!

"21 Ways to Scalp an Indian"

"The Red Man's Kit"

There is no fee for any portion of this event! but a suggested donation is welcome... come out and make this a spectacular time!!

Before I post any recipes, I would like to share with you a song that you would likely hear at a Mi’kmaq Pow Wow.

Time and Place will be:
Thursday, October 25, 2007
3:00 p.m to 9:00 p.m
Mackay Room in the Sub
St.Fx, Antigonish, Nova Scotia


Mi’kmaq Gathering Song

Wejkwita’jik nkikma’q wila tet nike’a
Ma’wiomi weskowa’sit, weltasualtultiek, a way.

Wejkwita’jik niskamijk wula tet nike’ a
Nenmitij na telta ‘jik, petaqte’ji’jk

Wejkwita’jik no’kmaq wula tet nike’a
Pepkwijete’ ma’tijik newtitpa’q
Way ha ya you way.

A way ha, way ha, way ha ya
Way ha way ha ya
Way ha ya yo way.

A way ha, way ha, way ha ya
Way ha way ha ya
Way ha ya you way.

Tiam’muwei – Roast Moose

Onion broth
Beef broth or gravy
Soya Sauce

Soak moose meat in onion broth overnight. Place roast in a roast pan. Add beef broth or gravy. Cut up small slices of garlic. Include salt and pepper to taste. Sprinkle with Soya sauce. Place in an oven for 350 degrees for 4 to 5 hours. The last ten minutes, put in some more beef gravy. Serve with vegetables and chow chow

Moose Burgers

21/2 lbs Moose meat (grounded) 1 egg 2 c. Bread crumbs Salt & Pepper Garlic Salt ½ c. Steak Sauce.
Method: Mix all together, make into patties and cook aver low heat- approx.10 min. On each side. Onions are optional. -cooked or raw
from Amelia Jesty

Moose Roast

1-4 lbs. moose roast
3-4 strips bacon
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1/2 tsp. cinnamon
1/4 tsp. ground cloves
1 tsp. dry mustard
4 tbsp. brown sugar
2 1/2 cups water
1/2 cup white wine vinegar
2 tbsp. chopped onions
3 tbsp. flour
1 cup cranberry juice
1 cup milk
Remove fat from moose and wipe well with clean cloth.
Lard the roast as follows - cut bacon into 2" strips, pierce the roast with a sharp knife at 2 " interval and insert bacon into holes - place roast into glass or earthenware bowl .
Mix the following ingredients and pour over roast.
Cover and marinate roast for 24 to 48 hours in the refrigerator.
Turn roast often if marinate does not cover completely.
Marinate - salt, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, mustard, brown sugar, water and vinegar -remove roast from marinate and place in covered roaster at 350 degrees for approximately 1 hour
Add onion flakes, cranberry juice and continue cooking roast until tender, approximately 1 more hour
When cooked, remove from pan to hot platter.
Add flour to pan dripping and cook for 5 minutes
Add milk, stirring constantly until gravy is desired thickness.

Moose Sukiyaki

2 Tbsp. vegetable oil 30 ml
1 1/2 lb. boneless moose sirloin 750 g
3 garlic cloves, minced
1/2 c soy sauce
3 Tbsp. sugar
3 Tbsp. chicken broth
1 large onion, thinly sliced
1 small green bell pepper, chopped
3/4 c thinly sliced celery
1/2 lb. fresh mushrooms, sliced
1- 8 fl oz. (227ml) tin sliced bamboo shoots, drained
3/4 c. sliced green onions
1 Tbsp. freshly grated ginger root
1 Tbsp. cornstarch, mixed with 2 Tbsp/30 ml chicken broth or water
Heat oil in a large heavy skillet until very hot.
Slice meat diagonally into strips, brown in batches in the hot oil. Blend together garlic, soy sauce, sugar and chicken broth; add half to meat in skillet, reduce heat to medium. Add onion, green bell pepper, celery and mushrooms, cover; reduce heat again and simmer 10 minutes.
Add remaining soy mixture to pan, together ,with the bamboo shoot slices. simmer uncovered , 4-5 minutes.. Add green onion, simmer 1 minute. Add grated ginger and cornstarch mixture. Stir and cook until sauce thickens slightly

Moose Roast with Cranberry Gravy
4 lb Moose Roast
3 Strips salt pork or thick sliced bacon
1 ts Salt
1/4 ts Black pepper
1/2 ts Ground cinnamon
1/4 ts Ground cloves
1 ts Dry mustard
4 tb Brown sugar
2 1/2 c Water
1/2 c White wine vinegar
2 tb Onion flakes
3 tb Flour
1 c Cranberry juice
1 c Milk

Remove all fat from the moose roast and wipe well with a clean damp cloth. Lard the roast as follows: Cut salt pork or bacon into 1/4 inch strips and chill thoroughly. Pierce the moose roast with a sharp knife or skewer at 2-inch intervals and insert the chilled strips of salt pork or bacon. Place the roast in a glass, earthenware or porcelain bowl. Mix the salt, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, mustard and brown sugar with the water and vinegar and pour over the moose ( 3 cups of sweet pickle juice may be used in place of the brown sugar, water and vinegar if desired. ) Marinate the roast for 24 to 48 hours, turning it over frequently if the liquid does not completely cover it.
Remove the roast from the marinade and place it in a covered roaster in a 350 degree oven for approximately one hour. Add onion flakes and cranberry juice and continue roasting until tender. ( about one hour ). Transfer meat to a hot platter. Add flour to the pan drippings and stir until the flour has absorbed the fat. Add the milk, stirring constantly, until gravy is desired thickness. Serve hot with the roast. Serves 6-8.

Moose Stroganoff
1 1/2 lb Moose sirloin steak (cut in 1/2" strips)
1/2 c Plus 2 tbsp. flour
1 ts Salt
1/2 lb Mushrooms, chopped
2 sm Onions, chopped
1 Clove garlic
3 tb Fat
1 tb Worcestershire
1 c Canned beef bouillon
1 c Sour cream
Steamed rice

Roll meat in 1/4 cup flour and salt. Saute garlic, onions and mushrooms in fat for 5 minutes. Add meat and brown. Remove meat, mushrooms and onions from pan. Add remaining flour to drippings in pan. Add Worcestershire and bouillon. Cook until thickened. Add sour cream. Heat until gravy simmers. Add cooked moose and vegetables and heat. Serve over rice.

Moose Steak with Musuroom Sauce
1 lg Moose Steak
3 tb Bacon Drippings
1/2 c Bouillon Or Consomme
1 md Onion, Chopped
1/2 ts Garlic Powder
3 tb Tomato Paste
1/2 c Water Or Sherry
1 c Sliced Fresh Mushrooms
2 tb Unbleached All-Purpose Flour
1/4 c Cream
ds Of Paprika

Heat the bacon drippings in a large skillet and brow the steak on both sides, thoroughly. Add the broth, onion, garlic, and tomato paste diluted in the water or sherry. Cover the pan and simmer for 1 hour or until the meat is tender. Remove the steak from the pan and keep hot. Add the mushrooms to the pan liquid; cover and simmer for 1 minute. Thicken with flour and water mixture. Dilute with the cream. Heat thoroughly. Taste for seasoning and pour over the steak. Sprinkle with the paprika.

Fall Apart Moose
2 Onions; medium
1 lb sweet carrots
4 lb Moose rump roast
2 Cloves garlic
2 c Water
1 pk Onion soup mix
2 tb Cornstarch
2 Beef bouillon cubes

Use a large slow cooker on high temperature setting. Dice onions and carrots and put in slow cooker. Add moose roast. Slice garlic in small pieces. Add water, garlic and onion soup. Salt and pepper to taste. Cover and cook for 4 hours.
Drain juice from meat into saucepan. Add bouillon cubes. Bring juice to boil. Add cornstarch and stir until juice turns thick and clear.
Pour gravy (juice) back into the slow cooker with the moose and carrots/onions. Cook for another hour.
When done, slice moose in thin slices. Place in center of serving platter, garnish with carrots and onions. Pour a small amount of gravy over moose and serve. Mashed potatoes, rice or baked potatoes are fantastic with the remaining gravy.

Moose Pie
1 1/2 lb Moose steak, cubed
1/3 - 1/2 c. flour
1 md Onion, chopped
1 Clove minced garlic
3 tb Oil
2 c Water
2 tb Worcestershire sauce
1 ts Marjoram
1 ts Thyme
1 ts Celery seed
1 ts Salt
1/2 ts Pepper
1 Bay leaf
Diced potatoes & carrots
Frozen peas or green beans
Pie crust

Shake cubed steak in plastic bag with flour, a few cubes at a time. Brown moose and onions and garlic in heated oil, until Moose is brown. Add water, herbs, Worcestershire sauce, salt and peppers. Bring to a boil, reduce heat, simmer 1 1/2 hours. Add potatoes and carrots, cook approximately 30 to 45 minutes longer. Add peas. Pour into pie pan. Cover with pie crust, flute edge, cut slits in top. Bake 15 to 20 minutes or until crust is nicely browned.

Venison Stroganoff

2 lb. venison steak
2 tbsp. butter
1 package onion soup mix
4 cups water
2 tbsp. chopped parsley
1/2 tsp. garlic powder
dash of pepper
1/4 tsp. oregano
1/2 cup sour cream
1/2 cup corn starch

Cut up venison steak into 1 inch cubes. Brown the cubes in 2 tbsp of butter. Stir in 1 package of onion soup mix. Add 4 cups of water to 2 tbsp. chopped parsley, 1/4 tsp. garlic powder, dash of pepper, 1/2 tsp.oregano. Bring to a boil. Turn heat very low and cook gently about 1 1/2 hours. When meat is tender add 1/2 cup sour cream dairy type. Do this by first a little hot sauce from the meat. Put all meat back into the mixture and blend 1/4 cup corn starch into a little water and stir into meat mixture. Cook until sauce thickens. Serve over cooked noodles or rice and along with salad and a vegetable.

By Eunice Stick (Stockbridge-Munsee Community Bowler, WI)

Our Family has just another culinary delight from the wild. The credit goes to "Outdoor Life Magazine"
It was a last ditch-desperate attempt to find out what to do with a freezer full of venison that I picked up the Nov. 1969 issue of your magazine and read in it an article by Edna Wagner-Piersole Titled "Venison Fit for a King" and this recipe I met with instant success and now it is one of our favorites-you should try what "Venison fit for a King" tastes like.

Hot Taco Dip

1 lb. of hamburger, venison, turkey etc.....ground up
1 packet of taco seasoning, hot, mild
1 can refried beans small can
1 jar of picante sauce or salsa
1 bag of taco cheese
1 bag of tostada chips for dipping

Brown hamburger in frying pan. Add taco seasoning as directed on the package. When done add picante or salsa to hamburger mixture. Stir and let simmer for 15 min. In a 13x9 inch pan or glass dish spread the can of refried beans on the bottom of the pan. After the hamburger mixture is done simmering spread over the top of the refried beans in pan. Sprinkle on the cheese and put in a 200 degree oven until cheese is melted. Dip with chips.
By Cindy Jungenberg (Stockbridge-Munsee Community Bowler, WI)

I received this recipe from a fellow. The dip was an appetizer to the homemade chicken soup he also made. We came from out of town and stayed with our fellow friend that put us up for the night while we were in town. We arrived around dinner time and the fellow had prepared an appetizer and dinner. We started on the appetizer and enjoyed it so much we forgot about the chicken soup. I told the fellow that that dip he made was excellent and asked for the recipe. He gave me the recipe and it has been a favorite for any family get together. I have had to make the dip on a very short notice one time and only had venison in the house. The dip being so good nobody new it was venison instead of hamburger.

Thanks, Cindy

Cindy Jungenberg
Librarian Specialist
Stockbridge-Munsee Library/Museum
N8510 Moh He Con Nuck Road
Bowler, WI 54416
Fax 715-793-4836

Objiway Moose Steaks

1 kg (2 lb) moose steak
Salt and black pepper to taste
250 ml (1 cup) bread crumbs
1 cn 12 oz (375 ml) pasta sauce
250 ml (1 cup) grated mozzarella cheese
Season steaks with salt and pepper. Coat streaks with bread crumbs and bake at 350 F (180 C) for 10 minutes, turning once. Add pasta sauce and cook for an additional 15 minutes. Add mozzarella cheese and cook until cheese in melted. 4 servings.

Deer meat stew

1 1/2 lbs deer meat, 2 tbsp. fat, ½ cup onions, 4 medium potatoes (cubed), 1 tsp. salt, 1/4 tsp. pepper, 4 carrots

Method: Brown deer meat in hot fat, season with salt & pepper, Add 11/2 c. Water, simmer for about 15 min. Add onion, carrots and potatoes. Simmer for 1 1/2 - 2 hours.
Turnip may be added.

from Amelia Jesty

Rack of Venison With Forest Mushrooms

Prepared by chef Hessni Malla of La Tour d'Argent Restaurant.
1 quart beef stock
½ cup chopped leeks
¼ cup each, chopped: shallots and carrot
1 tomato, chopped
½ bunch fresh parsley (leaves only)
½ cup port wine
2 teaspoons tomato paste
1 rack of venison (8 ribs, about 2 pounds)
¼ cup olive oil
2 cups sliced mixed exotic mushrooms (such as oyster, shiitake, portobello)
Salt and freshly ground black pepper, to taste (optional)
Chopped parsley or watercress for garnish (optional)

In a very large saucepan, combine stock, leeks, shallots, carrot, tomato and parsley; whisk in port and tomato paste. Bring to a slow boil, reduce heat and simmer 2 hours, or until sauce is reduced to 3 cups. Strain and discard solids. Preheat oven to 425 degrees. Place venison on a rack in a roasting pan and roast 25 minutes, just to medium rare. Remove venison from oven and set aside. (To add an optional crust on the top, brush 1 tablespoon Dijon mustard over roasted venison. Pat on about ½ to ¾ cup dry seasoned bread crumbs. Return venison to oven until bread crumbs are browned.)
Meanwhile, heat oil in skillet and add mushrooms; sauté briefly, then season with salt and pepper. Pour about ¼ cup sauce on each of 8 plates. Place 2 slices venison on each plate, atop sauce. Garnish with mushrooms and chopped parsley. Makes 8 servings.

Medallions of Venison With Chili-Pepper Sauce

From Rotisserie for Beef & Bird, this recipe appears in Houston Is Cooking the Best by Ann Criswell (Houston Gourmet, $19.95).
12 (2-ounce) venison medallions, from the back strap if possible
4 egg whites, whipped
2 tablespoons soy sauce
1 teaspoon honey
2 garlic cloves, minced
2 tablespoons cornstarch
½ cup each: vegetable oil and soft butter (1 stick)
Chili-Pepper Sauce (recipe follows)
Pound venison medallions with a mallet; place in a ceramic or stainless steel dish. In a small bowl, combine egg whites, soy sauce, honey, garlic and cornstarch. Spoon mixture over venison, coating all pieces well, then refrigerate, covered, 24 hours.
Remove venison from marinade. Heat oil in medium-size skillet; add venison and sauté over high heat on both sides until nicely brown. Do not overcook; meat should be pink in the center. Add butter to give venison a delicious nutty taste. Lift venison out of butter, then place on a heated platter; set aside. Keep the skillet, with butter and pan drippings, on the stove to make the Chili-Pepper Sauce.
When sauce is made, place 3 venison medallions on each of 4 plates and ladle Chili-Pepper Sauce over top. Serve with wild rice or risotto and winter vegetables. Makes 4 servings.
Note: To reduce sodium, calories and fat, use low-sodium soy sauce and eliminate oil by sautéing venison in a nonstick skillet using vegetable oil spray. Reduce amount of butter to ¼ cup. Use salt-free, defatted beef stock and substitute half-and-half for whipping cream in the sauce.

Venison Stroganoff
1 kg (2 lbs) deer, moose or elk steak
15 ml (1 tbsp) margarine or vegetable oil
1 pkg dry onion soup mix
1 L (4 cups) water
30 ml (2 tbsp) parsley, chopped
2.5 ml (½ tsp) garlic powder
dash pepper
0.5 ml (¼ tsp) oregano
60 ml (¼ cup) cornstarch
125 ml (½ cup) light sour cream or plain yogurt

1. Cut meat into 2½ cm (1 inch) cubes. In a large saucepan, brown meat in oil or margarine.
2. Stir in onion soup mix and add water, parsley, garlic powder, pepper and oregano. Bring to a boil, then turn heat to low. Cook gently for about 1½ hours or until meat is tender.
3. Mix cornstarch with a small amount of cold water (about 30 ml or 2 tbsp) and then add to meat mixture. Stir and cook until sauce thickens.
4. Add sour cream or yogurt and heat until hot but not boiling.
5. Serve over noodles or brown rice if desired.
Source: Canadian Diabetes Association – Aboriginal recipes section

Kiowa Venison Roast

Slab of venison, about 2" thick
4 ts Bacon fat
1/4 ts Pepper
1 tb Celery, chopped
1/2 c Flour
1/2 ts Salt
1 tb Onion, chopped
2 c Water, boiling

Lay venison on board and pound flour into it. Melt fat in a large frying pan, and brown roast in it. Add all the seasoning and 1/2 of the water. Cover and let simmer for 55 minutes. Pour in rest of water and simmer until done.

Deer Chili
1 lb. ground deer meat
1 onion, chopped
1 clove garlic, minced
1 Tbsp. Worcestershire sauce
1 pt. tomato juice
1 can tomato sauce
1 can whole kernel corn
1 can pinto or kidney beans
1 pkg. chili mix

Brown meat, onion and garlic in skillet. Put in slow cooker along with all other ingredients. Cook on low setting for 6 to 10 hours or overnight. I double this and freeze. Use in winter for a quick
Baked Deer Meat
Cube deer meat; about 2-3 steaks worth
1 Beef bouillon cube; dissolved in:
3/4 c Water
2 ts Worcestershire sauce
1 tb Soya sauce
1 pn Salt and pepper
Chopped onion; (if desired)

Combine all the above in a casserole dish and bake at 325F for about 2 hours, stirring occasionally. Or combine in a slow cooker and let cook on low for 6-8 hours. Use the broth to make gravy if you like. The meat is tender and not at all gamey this way.

Candied Chops
6 md Venison chops/steaks/pork chops
Salt and pepper -- to taste
1 1/2 c Brown sugar
1 Lemon -- sliced
3 c Ketchup
2 tb Corn oil
1/2 c Water

Salt and pepper each steak/chop to taste. Brown steak/chops in large fry pan for 5 minutes each side. Remove venison and drain juice. Cover each piece of meat with toppings as follows: Completely cover each piece with ketchup. Sprinkle each piece with brown sugar in the center of the steak or chop. Add water to pan; cover and simmer on low heat for 1 hour. Remove from pan and serve with toppings intact.

Brush Country Deer Loaf

2 1/2 lb Ground venison
1 md White onion
1 md Bell pepper
2 Eggs
1 c Bread crumbs
1 cl Garlic
3 tb Chili powder
Salt and pepper
1 10oz can tomato sauce
3 sl Bacon

Mix first 8 ingredients--put in greased pyrex dish. Place bacon strips on topp of loaf. Pour tomato sauce over all. Bake in moderate oven 1 1/2 hours or until done.

Deer in Beer
2 pound chunk of deer meat
1/4 tsp salt
1/4 tsp black pepper
2 cans beer (your favorite) I Noticed import beer like Heineken makes a big difference
1/2 cup brown sugar
2 tbsp molasses
Place meat in a large bowl and pour beer over it. Cover and marinate in refrigerator overnight.
Next, remove venison and pat dry, then pour beer, sugar and molasses in sauce pan and cook over medium heat, stirring it until sugar dissolves.
Sprinkle meat with salt and pepper and place in a large heavy skillet, then pour the beer mixture over it. Cover with a lid and bring to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer for 1 1/2 hours, or until tender.

Easy Oven Venison Stew
2 lb Venison stew meat
1 ts Pepper
1 lg Onion, chopped
1 tb Sugar
6 Stalks celery, chopped
3 tb Quck cooking tapioca
6 Carrots, sliced
1 1/2 c Tomato juice
3 md Potatoes, diced
1 Parsley flakes
1 ts Seasoned salt

Mix raw meat and raw vegetables together and place into a 13X9-inch baking pan. Blend seasoned salt, pepper, sugar and tapioca into the tomato juice and pour over the meat/vegetable mixture. Sprinkle with parsley flakes. Cover tightly with tin foil and bake at 250F for 4 hours.

Deer Steak
1 lb. deer steak (approximately 1/2-inch thick)
1 c. flour with salt and pepper
1 can mushroom soup

Cut deer steak in approximately 3-inch squares. Roll in flour, salt and pepper to taste. Fry in hot shortening until brown, turning once. Place pieces of steak in slow cooker. Mix soup with 1 can water and flour left after coating steak. Mix enough water to flour to make it smooth. Then pour over steak in slow cooker. Make sure it covers steak. Cook on low heat for 6 to 8 hours. (Can test for doneness. ) When done, turn on high and thicken with cornstarch as you like. Note: Use with rice, noodles or mashed potatoes.

Easy Slow Cooker Venison Roast
1 small to med. venison roast
1 can cream of mushroom soup
1 envelope Lipton onion soup mix
1 large onion -- sliced
Soy sauce
Worcestershire sauce
Garlic salt
Season All

Cut venison into serving size piece while meat is raw. Place cleaned and washed meat in slow cooker, sprinkle very generously with Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, Season All and garlic salt. Add mushroom soup and onion soup mix. Stir together and place onion rings on top. Cover and cook on low for 6 to 8 hours.

Garlic Steak Stir-Fry

2 lb Round steak/venison
1/4 c Light soy sauce
1 c Beef bouillon
1/4 ts Ginger
2 Clove mashed garlic
1/4 c Cooking sherry
4 tb Peanut oil
2 Clove chopped garlic
1 1/2 c Boiling water
3 lg Green peppers cut into 1/2 inch strips
1 c Sliced water chestnuts
3 tb Cornstarch
Sherry or sesame oil
Hot boiled rice

Cut meat against the grain into 1/2 inch strips (this is easier to do if meat is partially frozen). Make a marinade for the meat by combining soy sauce, bouillon ginger, mashed garlic and sherry. Marinate steak for 2-12 hours in the refrigerator. Dry meat on paper towels. In a wok, heat peanut oil and saute chopped garlic until it turns golden brown. Remove, leaving at least 2 tablespoon oil in wok. Add meat to oil and saute until brown (add just a dash of sherry/sesame oil to meat while it's browning). Add reserved marinade and 1 cup boiling water. Simmer 45 minutes or less time, if desired. When meat is tender, remove and keep in warm oven. Pour marinade in separate pan and add cornstarch. Add remaining 1/2 cup boiling water, if needed. Simmer until thick. Stir-fry green pepper and water chestnuts in liquid remaining in wok. Add meat and marinade gravy. Add dash sesame oil to taste. Serve over boiled rice.

Hungry Man’s Stew with Venison
3 lb Venison
2 Onions, chopped
3 tb Worchestershire sauce
2 lb Potatoes
1 cn Green beans
1 cn Wax beans
1 cn Corn
1 lb Carrots, sliced
2 qt Water
2 ts Seasoned salt
1 ts Pepper
2 ts Oregano
2 ts Garlic powder
4 tb Cornstarch

Cut venison into chunks. In a large stew pot, lightly brown venison with chopped onions and Worchestershire Sauce. Cut potatoes into cubes. Add potatoes, green beans, wax beans, corn, carrots, water, seasoned salt, pepper, oregano, and garlic powder. Bring mixture to a boil, then turn down to simmer. Stir often. Simmer 2 1/2 to 3 hours. For last 1/2 hour, take some juice from the stew pot, and add cornstarch. Stir until dissolved. Add back into mixture.

Potato Carrot Venison Stew

2 lb Venison, cubed
1 Bay leaf
1/4 c Flour
3 c Water
1 ts Salt
2 c Fresh mushrooms
1/4 ts Pepper
4 Potatoes, quartered
3 tb Oil
4 Carrots, cut up
2 ts Beef bouillon
2 tb Flour
2 Onions, cut up
1 1/4 c Water
1 Stalk celery, diced

In large bowl, coat meat with flour, salt and pepper. In large pot, brown meat in oil. Add bouillon, onions, celery, bay leaf and 3 cups water. Simmer covered for 1 1/2 hours, or until venison is tender. Remove bay leaf. Add mushrooms, potatoes and carrots. Cover and continue cooking until vegetables are tender, about 30 to 45 minutes. Combine 2 tablespoons flour and 1/4 cup water. Stir into stew juices. Heat until thick. Stir constantly.

Smoked Deer Ham

1 Deer ham, 8-10 lb
3 tb Red pepper
1/2 c Salt
1/4 c Vinegar
4 tb Pepper, black

Wash ham carefully and trim away fat or cartilage. Make small slits in meat with sharpe knife about 2 in. apart and 1 in. deep, all over the roast. Make a paste of the ingredients and stuff each cut slit with a small teaspoon of seasoning paste. Rub remaining seasoning over outside of roast. Seal tight in a container and refrigerate for 24 - 48 hours, turning over 2 or 3 times. When ready to cook, place on spit over coals and smoke approximately 4 - 5 hours. When done, wrap in foil and keep very warm till serving.

Venison and four beans
2 lb Venison
1 lb Bacon
1 can Pork and beans
1 can Lima beans
1 can Kidney beans
1 can Navy beans
1/2 Onion, cut up
1 Green pepper, cut up
1 c Mustard
1 c Catsup
1 ts Brown sugar
1 ts Salt
1 ts Pepper

Brown venison and bacon. Put all ingredients in slow cooker and crook for 4 hours on high temperature setting.

Seared Salmon Satisfaction – Submitted by Elliot Youden – Lark Harbour, Newfoundland
4 fresh salmon filets
Pre-cooked whole corn kernels
Salt and pepper

Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Prepare the filets by sprinkling with barley, salt and pepper. Roast the salmon filets on a regular baking sheet for 5-7 minutes and then cover with corn and blueberries. Bake for an additional 5 minutes to achieve desired texture of the salmon. Serve immediately. Tart or sweet blueberries will add flavors sure to entice any palate

Stuffed Atlantic Salmon

Submitted by: Eva Nicholas − Head of the Waters
One Atlantic salmon
One Package of Shake N Bake for fish or chicken
Ready to bake stuffing
Lemon Juice
Salt and Pepper to taste
One Turkey Bag or Aluminum Foil, Optional, Can cook without these but slower.
Preheat oven to 325 degrees.

This is an absolutely delicious way to enjoy salmon for the entire family. It's very
easy to bake and it taste sensational. It has since become one of my husbands
family favorites passed down from my parents. The only change I have made is
Cooking the salmon in a turkey bag, I find it retains the flavor of the salmon better
and the foil has a tendency to get stuck to the bottom of the salmon.

First Prepare the stuffing as instructed on the stuffing of your choice. I use
Uncle Ben's turkey stuffing; it only takes about 5 minutes.
Take a whole salmon, remove the head and tail. Slice the belly side of the
salmon open from one end to another, In other words from the head to tail.
Rinse the fish in cold water. Sprinkle a dash of salt and pepper inside the fish
and some lemon on top and inside the belly of the fish.
Now stuff the salmon's belly with the turkey stuffing. I usually end up using
the entire box for a small− medium size salmon two boxes if you have a
bigger salmon. Now Sprinkle the Shake N Bake on top of the salmon,
turnover and sprinkle generously on both sides. Tie the salmon into a turkey
bag or wrap with foil and let cook for approximately 40−70 minutes,
depending on size of the salmon. Now just wait and enjoy.

Rabbit Stew
Submitted by: Melissa Labrador−Posey – Wildcat First Nation

Rabbit stew has been a favorite in our family for generations. It's very easy
to make and cooked similar to beef stew.
1 Rabbit
salt water
Or soda water
small amount of fat
chopped onion
onion mix
veggies of choice; carrots, turnip, potatoes and so on

After preperation of the rabbit, some people soak the rabbit in salt water over
night. Others prefer to boil the rabbit off in a little soda water for about 30
minutes. This helps tenderize the meat.
After tenderizing the rabbit and rinsing it off, put a small amount of fat in the
pot along with chopped onion. Brown the rabbit on both sides in the fat and
onion mix.
Once the rabbit is browned add water and then veggies of choice; carrots,
turnip, potatoes and so on. Cook through until veggies are done.
Let me add a tip from Dr. Granny. She says combine partridge and rabbit for
a wonderful tasting stew.
Servings: 4−6

Rabbit Stew

1 Whole Rabbit (cut up) 4 carrots pieces of salt pork 1 small turnip 1 lg. Onion 6 potatoes (cubed)

Method: Skin rabbit ,wash and clean . Skillet- fry pork and onion add to rabbit boil ½ hr.Add turnip & carrots & potatoes boil until vegetable are done. May add dumplings.
from Amelia Jesty

Mi’kmaq Fried Rabbit
1 Rabbit skinned and washed
1 c Flour
1 ts Salt
Pepper to taste
Cooking oil
1 Onion, diced
Juice of 1/4 lemon

Cut rabbit up in pieces desired. Roll pieces in mixture of flour, salt, and pepper. Brown rabbit in 4 T. cooking oil. Add diced onions and lemon juice. Cover and cook until done.

Native American Rabbit Delight
1 Young rabbit
1 tb Fat,
1 c Broth or water with chicken bouillon cube
1/4 c Lemon juice
3/4 c Orange juice
1/2 c Mushrooms, chopped,
1 tb Parsley, chopped,
1 pn Ginger
1/2 ts Salt
1/4 ts Pepper
2 Green peppers, chopped.

Cut up the rabbit and brown pieces in fat in a heavy pot. Add broth and other ingredients, season with salt, pepper and ginger. Cover and cook slowly until tender.

Garlic Rabbit
1 Rabbit
1 tb Flour
Salt and pepper
1 lg Head of garlic
5 tb Oil
1 lg Glass sherry or white wine

Marinade rabbit pieces ( not chicken ) overnight in 2 tbs white wine vinegar. 'Roll in seasoned flour. chop garlic fine .Brown rabbit in oil until meat takes on color . Add wine and let cook until most of liquid evaporates. Cover and let simmer 30 to 40 minutes or tender and most of liquid is gone.Serve with garlic scented oil, fresh tomato slices.

Cook Out Rabbit
1 Rabbit Fryer; quartered
1 1/2 ts Salt
1/4 ts Pepper
1 1/2 ts Season salt
1/2 c Vegetable oil
1/4 c Sauterne Wine

Season rabbit with salt & pepper. Mix oil, wine and season salt. Broil rabbit, basting often with sauce until browned and tender.

Pan Stewed Rabbit
1 Rabbit, ready for the pan
1 Salt
1/2 c Olive oil
1 c Vinegar, wine
1 Flour
2 tb Butter
3 Olives, chopped
1 Garlic clove, mashed
2 c Consomme
1/4 ts Salt
1/4 ts Pepper
1 tb Bacon, raw, diced
2 c Wine, red

Cut rabbit into serving pieces; place in bowl overnight with 1 Tbsp salt, olive oil, and wine vinegar. Remove and dip in flour. Brown on all sides in butter, then add chopped olives, mashed garlic cloves and brown again. Add 2 C consomme, salt, pepper, raw bacon and red wine. Place in covered casserole dish and bake at 350 for about 2 hours.

Rabbit Pie

Skin and clean the rabbit. Let soak about 1 hour in salted water. Remove, cut into serving pieces and boil. Add 1 sliced onion and when cooked remove the meat from bones, reserving the broth. Add soda crackers to the broth, enough to absorb and thicken broth. Add meat pieces, season to taste and place in a greased baking pan. (many older cooks prefer an enameled baking pan.) Cover with rich biscuit dough and make several slits in dough for steam to escape. Bake in a moderate oven, 350 degrees F, until biscuit dough is baked and brown.

Rabbit Pot Pie
1 lg Rabbit
1 lg Onion, chopped
2 Stalks celery, choppe
1 Garlic clove, minced
3 Carrots, chopped
3 Potatoes, cubed
2 Chicken bouillon cubes
1 pk Frozen vegetables
1 pk Chicken gravy mix
4 9 inch prepared pie crusts

Boil rabbit in one-quart salted water until done. Cool, cube meat and return to broth. Add onion, garlic, celery, carrots, potatoes, and bouillon. Boil for 15 minutes or until done. Add frozen vegetables and gravy mix (stirried into 1/2 cup water) and return to boil. Cool mixture and pour into prebaked pie shell. Cover with second pie shell. Crimp sides, slit top and bake on cookie sheet until top crust is done. Makes 2 pies.

Roast Rabbit
Dress rabbit. Wash carefully in water to which 1/2 teaspoon baking soda has been added to each quart. Let stand in salted water overnight. Stuff with onion, celery, or chestnut dressing. Sew. Rub rabbit with salt and pepper. Place in baking dish with 1 onion, a few whole cloves, 1 bay leaf, 1 diced carrot, and a few peppercorns. Dot with cooking fat. Sift a little flour over top. Pour 1 cup of stock or water into pan. Cover tightly. Roast in moderate oven (400 F) until tender. Baste frequently. Serve with slices of lemon, and cranberry or currant jelly.

Eel Chowder

3 med Eels 1 Onion 4 potatoes
Method: cut skinned eels into 1 inch pieces Dice potatoes and onions. Boil eels for 10 min. Add potatoes and onions. Boil until cooked.
from Amelia Jesty

Skinless Eels
Salt and Pepper to taste
A bit of oil
A bit of flour
To skin the tough skin off the eel, cut around the head with a sharp knife.
Use pliers, grip skin that goes up to a point at the back of the head. Pull
down strongly, stripping off skin and leaving smooth, clean, white fish.
Remove head with knife.
Cut eels in serving size pieces, sprinkle a bit of salt and put into saucepan to
parboil for 20 minutes. Remove from saucepan, and roll into flour, salt and
pepper mixture. Fry in preheated pan with oil until golden brown. Ready to
serve immediately for your enjoyment.

October 5, 2007

Let's make Chow with Mulch Paul


Okay, As promised I would have my aunt's Chow Chow recipe online tonight. So let's get going.

Geraldine Paul is more well known as Mulch, she is my aunt from We'koqmaq First Nation, aka Whycocomagh, Waycobah, but no matter what you call our rez, its supposedly translates to the "Head of the Waters" of Oonamaki, the Land of the Mist and Fog, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. We live at the most beautiful place on earth, don't believe me, just come and visit, and explore scenic locations such as our homelands, the Cape Breton highlands, only an hour away are absolutely breath taking and of course our shorelines are stunning, the brad or lakes are a gem and who doesn't love the ocean? Anyone up to some whale watching or eagles soaring, or maybe witness a moose on the loose?

How about some Chow Chow preserves? That's on our agenda tonight. Earlier today I got a call from my aunt who told me she was in the process of making homemade preserves, Chow Chow and Cucumber relish so I went on over to her house with my camera in hand. I took photos step by step of what I thought would be an intimidating process. To my surprise my aunt made it look simply simple and relaxing. Nothing intimidating about it as a matter of fact.

Waste Not Want Not. Mulch had an extra supply of red tomatoes and she did not want them go to any waste so she added them to her Chow. So now we have a beautiful array of red and green tomatoes. My aunt mixed 16 cups of tomatoes for this recipe and cut up 5 Large Onions or in this case we substituted 10 smaller onions and mixed with a 1/4 cup of salt. Let sit overnight. Okay, that was the hardest part of the recipe. Unless you have food processor than this can prove to be the most daunting task.

My aunt says, this is a good time to shoot the breeze, a good ladies night. She and Annie K did this the night before and she tells me stories of when she used to preserve as a young girl. Preserving was much more common back then, In fact it used to be her homework assignment when she used to be a student of Mabou School. Students competed in homemade preserving in order to gain extra points she recalls. She would test every jar and students were tested on taste and how well the jelly was set. Lucky teacher.

Next Morning: There should be a lot of excess liquid now, so drain the Chow. Mulch squeezes the broth out of the Chow one hand full at a time. This did not too long, she put the drained chow into the pot she will be heating in only moments. Continue this until the Chow is completely drained. Then you add some Sugar, Dry Mustard, regular Vinegar. Mix well with your hands for about a minute. Mulch took two tablespoons of pickling spice and tied it tightly into some cheesecloth, you can see a picture of the bag in the banner below. Place this bag in the center of the Chow Mix.Now set on the stove at medium heat for about forty minutes. Mix occasionally and check that the pickling spice bag is still tied well and does not loosen up or break open.

As the Chow heats up, Mulch starts to prepare her table and places her Pre-sterilized Jars and Covers neatly on a clean towel.
Every once in a while Mulch would slowly stir the chow while it was slowly steaming on the stovetop. She would carefully inspect if any of the tomatoes for too large for her preference and would chop them into smaller pieces with her scissors. There were a few larger pieces. Once the pot has been heated for about forty minutes. Take the Chow off the burner and let cool for about 20 more minutes.

Then you scoop the Chow into the jars until the there is no more Chow left. Place lids and covers on the jars and close as tightly as you can. You should here a popping sound on the covers withinin a few more minutes indicating the jars are properly closed. Now you let sit in a dark, dry place for at least two days to get the most favorable Chow, this is when its best. Jarred Chow will stay fresh for at least a year. Last year, Mulch jarred 56 cans of Chow for us, this lasted us the entire year and it was all very good and fresh from week 1 to 52. And this is how it was done. Now I'm going to attempt to do this myself . I know it's not so intimidating as I first thought, I feel much more comfortable with the whole process now that we went through this step by step.

Mulch laughs at how easy preserving homemade preserves are these days. When she was a young girl, she can remember making preserves with her family and kiju, the Late Mary Helen Googoo. They had a big pot over an open fire, outdoors and cooked this way. Now a days we have electric stoves, so easy. We have dishwashers that can be used to sterilize the jars. Canning jellies, cucumber relish, Chow and other foods are an annual tradition for her and her sister Annie K. Thank you ladies for contributing to the On-line Mawiomi, Our Mi'kmaq gathering place to share stories, recipes and more.

About Mulch Paul:

Geraldine Paul, those who know her call her Mulch is a woman of many skills and known to be a go getter in our community. It was only a few years ago that Mulch was disabled and confined to a wheelchair. But this fact, did not deter her, she underwent surgery, regained her strength and recovered well. She healed with her will and determination. Today she is seen walking, working and traveling all over the place. She works hard all week and usually takes the weekend to relax with friends and family. Mulch is an active woman who is always working or volunteering all over the community. We all know obtaining a job on a reserve can be challenging but Mulch can get pretty creative in finding ways to earn a living. In the Summer, she wakes early in the morning and starts Barbecueing and making fresh subs,then sells them to all the hard workers, and clients all over the reserve. A lot of people depend on her and appreciate the service she provides to the community. In the winter months, she focuses more on her sewing trade and is often creating quilts that she sells, raffles and sometimes donates for charity. She spends much of her time, teaching young children at the school about Mi'kmaq crafts, games and our culture and traditional lifestyle. Last week, she was making baskets by the river during treaty day celebrations for all the students and on lookers to watch and learn. This weekend she is taking part in another annual tradition with her brothers and sisters. Every thanksgiving is a time where they go camping to the Cape Breton highlands and enjoy traditions such as cooking slowly roasted partridge and Barbecued eels,and who knows, maybe this year they will get that moose on the loose so their families can continue to enjoy the succulent taste of wild traditional foods in their lives.

Lets Review the recipe:
Mary Johnson's Chow

16 cups green tomatoes
8 cups onions
1/4 cup course salt
4 cups of sugar, she used half brown sugar and half white sugar
2 tablespoons pickling spice in a bag. For marinating flavor into the chow.
1 teaspoon dry mustard
3 cups of white vinegar


Put sliced up tomotoes, onions and salt in a large pan and let stand over night. In the morning drain out the juice. Return the mixture to the pot, add sugar, dry mustard, vinegar and mix well. Add the bag of pickling spice and heat for about 40 minutes to an hour. Let cool for a bit. Bottle while still hot. Place in a dark, dry place.

Update: Geraldine (Mulch) Pauls Chow

Just to give you a bit of an update, today my aunt Mulch made some homemade preserves. First she made some cucumber relish and the other was Chow Chow. I was there with my camera and snapped up some photos as she worked on the Chow. I am working on a few blog stories now, One is the chronology of the how my aunt made "Mary Johnson's chow" that is the title of her Chow recipe. I'd like to share some of my aunt's stories and I will include more photos. Another is the real thanksgiving story and of course some recipes too. Hopefully I will finish these by the end of the night, so be sure to check back and learn with me. I am also working on a blog that honors basket weavers, and this requires a bit more research at this point but it is a working progress. I also would like to know if there are any stories or recipes you may have or like to share, maybe you want to honor your role model, elder, someone that means a lot to you,or want to recollect old stories, perhaps we can celebrate a loved ones upcoming birthday or anniversary. I would like to hear your opinions and stories. I can be emailed at eva.nicholas@gmail.com . If you prefer to do a telephone interview, leave me your number and I would be more than happy to get back to you. This post is free, I do this as a hobby and I would like see you take this journey with me.

Be Back Later

October 1, 2007

Role Model Daniel N Paul contributes Recipe

Batter for Fish and Chips

Submitted by Daniel N. Paul
1 Cup of Flour
1 Cup of Aunt Jemima Pancake Mix
1 Teaspoon of salt
1 Tablespoon of sugar
1 Teaspoon of baking powder
1 Egg

This will make enough batter to prepare fish for about six adults. For Larger crowds just double or triple the ingredients.

For a crisper batter mix with water, for smoother use milk, or use a combination. Do not make it too watery.

Preparation for deep frying fish.

Break several eggs into a bowl and beat, dip cut up fresh haddock, or other fresh fish, into the eggs, roll in flour, then dip in fish batter, then place into hot deep fryer. Cook until slightly brown, remove, then do the same with the rest of the fish. Then return the fish to the fryer to golden brown and then serve.

Thank you Dan for this contribution. To learn more about Daniel N. Paul, You can read his Book "We Were Not the Savages" or visit his website www.danielnpaul.com

I would like to also like to thank Dr. Cosmas Ho and for taking the time to respond to my request. To learn more about Dr. Cosmas Ho, you can visit his website www.omega3sealoil.com .

In light of my Treaty day write up, I found the following recipe:

Savory Seal Hearts

1 Large Seal Heart
1 Cup Bread crumbs or cooked rice
1 teaspoon Parsley
1/2 teaspoon Sage
1/2 teaspoon Salt
1/4 teaspoon Pepper
2 tablespoons Onion flakes, softened in lukewarm water
Slices of fat bacon
2 Tablespoons Melted Butter

Soak the heart in salted water overnight.

Wash the heart well and trim off the fat, large veins and thread like cords

Cut the heart into think slices.

Grease a casserole well into butter.

Make a stuffing of bread crumbs or cooked rice, parsley, sage, salt, pepper and the onions. Toss lightly.

Place the slices of heart, stuffing and slices of fat bacon in layers, alternately in the greased casserole and top with the melted butter.

Cover tightly and bake in a moderate over for at least 2 hours. Serves 4

My Treaty day Message

Today is Treaty Day, marking 255 years since the signing of the 1752 treaty by our ancestors ensuring our rights to fish and hunt for generations and generations. Today I want to discuss “Sustainability, Cultural preservation, and respecting our treaty rights when hunting and fishing”. I am a true believer of these rights and that these rights must be protected, I also believe in conservation and sustainability. Sometimes our rights, get clouded and mixed up with political or social issues and one in particular that I think has prevented our tribe from being pursued is the Seal hunt. There may a few reasons why this opportunity has not been addressed was at one time an important and staple contribution to our food supply. Now days I never hear anyone say that they just had a feast of seal, cacamo, seal soup, a stuffed seal heart, etc. In fact, I have only met one Mi’kmaq family that still cooks seal as part of their diet. “The Mi’kmaq locative suffix -akadi,-akwadik shows up in regional place names like Quoddy Harbour, from Mi’kmaq nooda-akwade ‘seal-hunting place.”

I bring up the seal hunt now because I read in the news only five days ago, Prime Minister Stephan Harper defending the hunt when he was being harped by animal rights activists while attending an international conference on environment in New York.

“When asked why Canada permits the hunt, Harper said anti-sealing groups present false information about the practice and that the clubbing of baby seals has been outlawed for over 20 years. He went on to say, "The seal population is exploding in Canada - it's not an endangered species by any means." "There is no reason to discriminate against it any more than any other industry of animal husbandry. We will not be bullied or blackmailed into forcing people out of that industry who depend on the livelihood, based on things that are simply stories and allegations that are simply not true."

In August, 1994, author and historian Daniel N. Paul wrote his stance on the seal hunt in the Halifax Herald. He wrote the following:

Me thinks the time has come for us to manage the fisheries and the seal population for the good of the majority of our people, rather than trying to do so in response to the demands of special interests groups. This is 1994 not 1497, a time when the Atlantic fisheries seemed inexhaustible and the need to conserve was unheard of. The human population of the world has increased a hundredfold or more since then, and the need for us to responsibly manage and conserve vital food resources has become critical. In this context, the need to feed ourselves takes precedence over the needs of large herds of insatiable predators.

If it wasn't happening, it would be impossible for me to believe that responsible people would stand by in this time of world food shortages and allow the destruction of a valuable and renewable food resource by permitting the unchecked growth of the Grey-Seal herd. This animal is a veritable eating machine with very few natural enemies. To put on its blubber, it needs to consume vast quantities of fish and thus must almost constantly feed. Caused by the federal government's cancellation of the annual seal hunt, in answer to the demands of special-interests groups, its population has increased to the point where it is in the process of becoming the top consumer of fish in the Atlantic region.

Now, in an effort to regain control of the situation, there is talk of trying to reduce the seal population by the use of birth control. Try as I might, knowing the vastness of the North Atlantic, I can't visualize the animals voluntarily gathering in a specific location for the purpose of lining up to participate in birth control efforts. But then I suppose, in the minds of dreamers, anything is possible.

Give us a break! There are tens of thousands of people out of work in the fisheries who are in desperate need of employment. Surely, there must be a way to begin a harvest of these animals that will be both conducive to creating employment for our unemployed while at the same time conserving the animal in acceptable numbers and providing relief for fish stocks.

How about using them as a food source? I have never tasted the flesh of a seal; however, the ancient Micmac did utilize products from the animal for their survival. In the 17th century, Nicholas Denys wrote this about the people's dietary habits:

"There was formerly a much larger number of Indians than at present. They lived without care, and never ate either salt or spice. They drank only good soup, very fat. It was this that made them live long and multiply much.

They often ate fish, especially seals to obtain the oil.... and they ate the whale, which frequently came ashore on the coast, especially the blubber on which they made good cheer. Their greatest liking is for grease; they ate as one does bread, and drink it liquid!"

The before-mentioned indicates that the seal's flesh is potable and that people can acquire a taste for it - the same as they do, in the course of time, for other new products. The flesh of the animal, based upon its fish diet, should be very nutritious. With imagination, many other diverse uses for products from the animal's carcass can be found - pet food, for instance.

Now comes the part that gets many people up in arms, the slaughter of the beast. How to do it in a humane manner is the question. The method we settle upon must be a method that vastly improves upon the way its natural enemy, the shark, does it. The shark in a feeding frenzy virtually eats the beast alive! Given our skills in inventing methods to kill one another, finding a humane method to slaughter the seal, in this age of space exploration and advanced technology, should not be an insurmountable problem.

There is a natural resource waiting here to be developed and harnessed. In this area of high unemployment and lost hope, can we afford to continue to ignore it?

Daniel N. Paul

“In the past, the Mi'kmaq spent most of the year along the sea coast, taking advantage of the wealth of food available there throughout all but about six weeks of the year. Fish of all kinds, including salmon and sturgeon, plus porpoises, whales, walrus, seals, lobster, squid, shellfish, eels and seabirds with their eggs made up the bulk of their diet. They also ate moose, caribou, beaver and porcupine, as well as smaller animals, like squirrels. Berries, roots and edible plants were gathered during the summer. Meat and fish were dried and smoked to preserve them.”

It seems the more we have become displaced from our traditional lifestyle and diet the more prevalent we witness the incidence of diabetes, cancers, heart disease, arthritis, Alzheimer’s and the list goes on and on. It seems no matter what disease, sickness we see today, the underlying cause is often related to some lack of certain vitamins, minerals or an excess of another that has contributed to an illness. For example, heart disease is often associated with long term cholesterol problems, sodium aggravates high blood pressure, a sugar imbalance is potentially hazardous for someone with diabetes, and arthritis and many other illnesses can be prevented or minimized early in life with proper nutrition.

I read one day that 90 per cent of society lacks the minimum daily recommended amount of vitamin c and as a result, much of western society suffers from this vitamin deficiency. This form of malnutrition is especially true for impoverished families. I guess this would mean we’re on top of that list. This can have serious consequences to one’s health. I find this so ironic considering a serious lack of this vitamin deficiency is better known as scurvy. Whoa, now I find that ironic and just boggles my mind! How have we reduced our dietary lifestyle from eating the most nutritional, healthiest and delicate foods on earth to becoming so malnourished anyways? So what consequences I wonder can omitting seal from our lifestyle have on our people?

First, I think we should examine how consuming seal was viewed in our culture and examining what nutritional values can one gain from re-entering seal meat, seal oil, etc in today’s diet. I contacted Mi’kmaq author and historian Daniel N. Paul for permission to publish some information this heritage cookbook project from his book titled “We Were Not the Savages” and his website, in the submission he discusses his view of the seal hunt and how seal was viewed in our culture and diet. I feel this contribution is quite significant and of utmost importance. I also wrote to a doctor who works in the seal oil industry and asked him for his opinion on knowledge on possible benefits we can gain by re-introducing seal to our aboriginal diets. I wanted to understand the science why our ancestors celebrated so gleefully with the seal feast. I have even read Mi’kmaq legends when Glooscap took great appreciation for cacamo, this seal soup which seems like a vitamin enriched delicacy provides a feeling of wellness and great health.

Here is a sample from the first page of the 2nd Chapter of Dan Paul's
Book "We Were Not the Savages". I would like to thank Daniel N. Paul for his contribution to
The Mi'kmaq Heritage Cook book project and his valuable insight, work and
contribution to the Mi'kmaq Nation.

Chapter 2

Mi'kmaq Social Values and Economy

The pre-Columbian Mi’kmaq were a nomadic people who moved from place to place in harmony with the seasonal migrations of fish, game and fowl.These provided the principal components of their diets, supplemented by some farming. Their food supply was bountiful, dependable and extremely healthy, and materials needed to construct snug wigwams and make clothing suited to the changing seasons were readily available. They were not wanting.

Because of the communal nature of the society and the abundance of food, poverty among the People was virtually unknown. Material things, other than clothing and household goods, were shared equally. Thus the old, sick, infirm and otherwise disadvantaged were protected from destitution. Endowed with a high level of personal security, the People had a relatively low level of stress in their lives. This, combined with a healthy diet, blessed them with unusually long lifespans; centenarians were not rare. Comparing their comfortable and serene lifestyles with the hardships then being endured by much of the world’s other peoples, one must conclude that the Mi’kmaq were very well off.

Denys, who wrote after the Mi’kmaq population had undergone a substantial decline, describes their dietary habits:

There were formerly a much larger number of Indians than at present. They lived without care, and never ate either salt or spice. They drank only good soup, very fat. It was this that made them live long and multiply much. They often ate fish, especially seals to obtain the oil, as much for greasing themselves as for drinking; and they ate the Whale which frequently came ashore on the coast, especially the blubber on which they made good cheer. Their greatest liking is for grease; they ate as one does bread, and drink it liquid.1

“Cacamo” was their greatest delicacy. In order to make it, the women:

made the rocks red hot… collected all the bones of the Moose, pounded them with rocks upon another larger, reducing them to powder; then they placed them in their kettle and made them boil well. This brought out a grease that rose to the top of the water, and they collected it with a wooden spoon. They kept the bones boiling until they yielded nothing more, and with such success that from the bones of one Moose, without counting the marrow, they obtained five to six pounds of grease as white as snow, and as firm as wax. It was this which they used as their entire provision for living when they went hunting. We call it Moose butter; they Cacamo.2

Now Here is a letter from Dr. Cosmas Ho MD
I would like to thank Dr. Cosmas Ho MD from taking the time to write and address our concerns. For more information on him and his seal oil products, visit his website below or better yet you can read his book, that is listed in his site. I hope you enjoy his article.

In today’s society, our human diet is vastly different from our ancestors, where hunting, fishing and gathering of foods was an important part of their lifestyle. This was the way of life for Traditional Mi’Kmaq Indians, whose daily diet consisted of such delicacies as seal, moose, caribou, fish, and vegetables; dating back to 11,000 years prior to the first European contact in the early 17th Century. Over the centuries, due to changing lifestyles and need for convenience, our society began to abandon these traditional ways of attaining food. This resulted in a lower consumption of fish and other marine mammals such as the seal. Due to our fast lifestyle and fast food, our diet has dramatically changed for the worse. Consequently, our diet should have a balance of Omega 6 and Omega 3, at a ratio of 1:1; instead it shows a ratio of 20:1. This has resulted in a deficiency of Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA’s), which are important “essential” fatty acids for overall human health and development. Though Omega 3 is present at birth it is not made by the human body, thus requiring us to obtain it from another food source. Seal is relatively high in these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, according to research done by Hoppner, et al. (J. Am. Diet Assoc., 1978, Sep; 73 (3):257-60).

Due to the high deficiency in Omega 3 fatty acids in our diet today, the medical profession has seen an increase in diseases such as, heart disease, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis (inflammation), crohn’s disease (inflammation), cancer, depression, and even learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Research has shown that 68% of people die from just these conditions that involve fatty degeneration (cardiovascular disease (43.0%), cancer (22.4%), and diabetes (1.8%)). Unfortunately many of these deaths are due to poor eating habits. Overall, scientific studies have shown that this essential fatty acid deficiency is seen as the leading cause of 50 westernized degenerative diseases. A study by Bjarnason revealed that the incidence of breast cancer increased as Greenland and Icelandic women abandoned their traditional diets of marine life (mainly seal, which is very rich in Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). (Int. J., Cancer, 1974, 13: 689-696) Fortunately, the prevalence of such diseases does not have to be if we take the initiative to drastically change our current lifestyle.

This being said, the information and vast knowledge I have gained from my intensive review and research into the health benefits of the Omega 3 fatty acids, plus clinical observations and patient feedback, has led me to believe that regular daily consumption of the Omega 3 fatty acids from seal oil is far superior to that derived from finfish or any other food source. The Omega 3 PUFA’s in seal oil is nature’s ideal blend of EPA, DHA, and DPA, with the exception of DPA which is high in human breast milk. These essential fatty acids play a vital role in maintaining the integrity and fluidity of the membranes that surrounds human cells, protecting them from free radical damage.

The EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) present in seal oil reduces inflammation and blood clots within the cardiovascular system. Those with diets rich in EPA are less inclined to develop such diseases as rheumatoid arthritis, crohn’s disease, lupus, asthma, multiple sclerosis, and skin disorders. While the DHA (docorahexaenoic acid) is an essential building block of the brain, nerve and eye tissue, it is essential in developing an infant’s visual acuity and motor skills. Research has proven that seal oil is very rich in DHA. With regards to DPA (docorapentaenoic acid), it is only found in significant amounts in seal oil and nursing mother’s breast milk. It is as important as EPA or DHA and is an effective agent in blood vessel walls. Researchers in Japan (2003) found that DPA has a potential inhibitory effect on tumor angiogenesis (new vessel formation). This means that DPA has an anti-cancer effect. The composition of these essential fatty acids in seal oil are ultimately involved in controlling inflammation, cardiovascular health, myelin sheath development, allergic reactivity, immune response, hormone modulation, IQ, and behavior. For example, The International Atherosclerosis Project (1992) showed that the Inuit of the N.W.T. who lived on a traditional diet of marine mammals (mainly seal) had, at the age of seventy, the same coronary artery elasticity as a twenty year old European.

We are all natural biological organisms; therefore we must not only attain, but maintain and regain good health through natural approaches, diet and lifestyles in keeping with the biology that “nature” genetically built into us. I have always maintained that diet is one of the primary factors to achieving and staying healthy. Through my years of intensive research and study, I firmly believe that seal oil/meat is the best source of Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the world today. Whether these essential fatty acids (EPA, DHA, and DPA) are taken from the natural food source of seal oil or meat, like our ancestors did, or supplement form, it is an excellent contributor to attaining and maintaining good health at any age.

Dr. Cosmas Ho MD

Email: cosmasho@terranovafisheries.nf.net

Website: www.omega3sealoil.com